Monday, 18 November 2013

Goat farm diversification in Indian Conditions

Economic Overview of Goat Farming - In Indian Perspective 

Consultancy services by Goatgyan

Economic analysis revealed that harnessing modern technology & use of superior germplasm should be the prime criteria of livestock project judgment. Unorganized market however make agriculture sector risky. In this condition use of proper logistics and modern farming methods might be beneficial for entrepreneurs.

Goat sector is still in farming phase, it is not an industry like poultry. Market is unorganized. It means that market is governed by those people who are not in the production system. They never have the possession of the commodity but yet earn maximum profits. Due to this, an expected slump in the market is always present. One universal remedy for this problem is the development of cooperatives like dairy sector or total vertical integration as in poultry sector.

There are very less number of export oriented “State of Art” slaughter houses that are why we lag behind in international trade of goat meat. Establishment of need based abattoirs & processing units could become solution to the problem of unorganized market. Unhygienic production & absence of regulatory authority is also contributed to our low export representation.

Meat sold on per kg basis while concept of prime / choice cuts is absent so all meat is high priced even for low value cuts. This concept can be introduced to harvest better returns from modern farm grown animals. Animals from the regions are assembled in private mandis weekly. These animals are purchased by local traders or representatives of industrial houses. Trading is based upon body score and meat yield. Limitations of such types of market is its Periodic nature, Large number of agents involved, Lack of infrastructure, Animal is examined through outer appearance and absence of pricing on unit weight basis. This type of pricing system keep big investors refrain from investing because they are unable to work out their profits from their produce.

Organize farms which have maintained their farm records and value of their inputs does not face this type of problem as I always recommend them to sold their product on per kg weight basis. Keeping record of farm production on per kg basis is the best & most efficient utilization of resources.

Milk of goats is openly neglected in India. It is used mainly by the farmers for their domestic use because it does not have proper market. One reason for this negligence is absence of dairy breeds in India. However in recent years due to increasing health consciousness, people came to know the benefits of goat milk. It is far better than cow milk in biochemical composition. It is the best substitute for human milk, its use in dengue fever and other viral diseases make it indispensable. Cheese and yoghurt can be more money fetching by marketing in urban areas.

Manure can be well utilized if land is not the issue. Integrated fish farming is the best option for supplementary income.  India being an agrarian economy produces large quantities of plant and animal residues, the former to the tune of 321.4 million metric tonnes and the latter amounting to more than 1000 million metric tonnes of animal dung on annual basis. Advantages of integrated fish farming systems integrated fish farming systems utilize the waste of live stock, poultry and agriculture by- products for fish production.  About 40-50 kg of organic manure can produce 1 kg of fish.  Fish farms having an integration with mulberry cultivation, sericulture and silk extraction from cocoons allow the pupae to be utilized fish feed and the worm feces and waste water from the processing factory to be used as pond fertilizers.  Pond silt can be used as fertilizer for fodder crops which in turn can be used to raise live-stock and poultry or as fish feed.  Thus a recycling of waste is done in integrated fish farming system.
Goats not only provide meat and milk but also a good amount of manure.  Annual production of manure from a goat is around 1.5 - 2 tons per year.  If animal manure is not properly used, it causes pollution of water and environment.  It has been observed that 40-50 kg of animal manure produce 1 kg of fish.  Animal manure and green fodder can totally replace the commercial feed for fish farming achieving a similar fish production. The goat is a versatile animal. It has been identified that 400 goat’s manure is sufficient for 1 hectare pond/10000 fishes. These fishes grew up on goat farm waste without any cost of production.

Renewable energy plant is also suggested. Manure should be fed directly to the bio digester and allow it to disintegrate organically which produce biogas.  Manure from 1 goat in a month can produce amount of biogas which is sufficient for cooking the meal of 4-5 people for month. Slurry left after manure digestion is even more nutritious for fishes.

Seri culture/ production of silk from silk worm can be introduced with these integrations. Seri culture is highly developed in china because of similar types of mixed ventures. Mulberry trees can be grown at the farm dykes. Harvested mulberry leaves are fed to silk worm & the waste material obtained from silk worm rearing enters fish pond as a mixture of mulberry leaves & silkworm excrement. Mulberry dykes yield leaves @ 30 tons/ha/year. When fed to silkworm 16-20 tons of waste is produced. Silk worm is growing very fast. It attains 1000 times weight in just 1 month and start forming cocoon. 

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